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Due to smaller sample size in the ASD female group, we did not include an interaction term between the severity score and diagnosis or sex (depending on analysis) in the subsequent logistic regression models.
Including the interaction item introduced high collinearity between predictors for several item analyses leading to instability in parameter estimates.
For example, the positive correlation between intellectual disability and severity of symptoms (Carter et al.
), combined with the fact that males are more prone to developmental delay have led some to hypothesize that the higher prevalence of autism in males stems from a greater risk of developmental disability (Boyle et al. The exact nature of this relationship is unclear, and studies have found evidence that sex differences in cognitive performance, adaptive abilities and repetitive behaviors do not appear to be ASD specific, but instead bear a closer resemblance to those found in typically developing children (Messinger et al. However, other viewpoints stress specific biological factors related to autism, e.g.
However, controlling for total M-CHAT failures, this male disadvantage was more equivocal and many classically ASD-associated features were found more common in non-ASD.
Within ASD, females showed relative strengths in joint attention, but impairments in imitation.
) suggested ASD could be considered an extreme expression of normal male, compared to female, phenotypic profiles.
Diagnoses of ASD were obtained from the Autism Birth Cohort´s (ABC) clinical records, in our sample, assessed at 3.5 years (Stoltenberg et al. A child’s diagnose were rendered completely blinded for ratings in Mo Ba-questionnaires and with no knowledge about any previous diagnosis by specialized services.
Children in the Mo Ba-sample is currently ranging from 7 to 17 years of age.